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Title: The potential for carbon capture and utilization (CCU) for the state of Kuwait
Authors: Almutairi, Asmaa Dh H Sh A
Issue Date: 2022
Publisher: Newcastle University
Abstract: Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) is a crucial enabling technology that supports delivery of the dual challenges of maintaining fossil fuels as a key energy source, whilst simultaneously dramatically reducing the associated CO2 emissions. This thesis aims to develop a realistic database of CO2 emission sources in the state of Kuwait. The research then investigates the potential of deploying CCU in Kuwait, currently one of the highest carbon emitting countries in the world. After identifying the major sectors responsible for CO2 emissions, both 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approaches were used to aggregate data from these sectors. The Emission Factors (EFs) were acquired from open literature such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The analysis then explored the stakeholders’ inclinations towards CCU. Both qualitative and quantitative surveys methods were conducted in the form of focus group discussions and the Information- Choice Questionnaire (ICQ), respectively. The Kuwaiti power sector proved to be the predominant stationary source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (42%) due to high regional demand for electricity and water. The chemical industry ranked second in this analysis with a significant share of CO2 emissions (26%) which was attributed to heavy and energy intensive industries, and this was followed by road transportation (16%). The total process emissions were covered in this analysis for the first time which explains the variation between the real carbon footprint of Kuwait 98 Mt CO2/y and both the World Bank 91.03 Mt CO2/ y (WBR, 2006) and International Energy Agency 69.82 Mt CO2/ y (IEA, 2010b) with differences of 7.7% and 40%, respectively. The geographical distribution of CO2 emissions was analysed, showing that high emission facilities are clustered mainly in the southeast which is the predominant industrial area in the state. This distribution could potentially be favourable for the formation of a ‘capture cluster’ which could reduce the overall cost of carbon capture deployment as a route for a sustainable carbon mitigation practice. If the Kuwait government diversify its economy towards non-oil bases, the carbon footprint of the state will increase from 118 to 126 Mt/y. Overall, there was a positive attitude among all stakeholders, across a number of different sectors, regarding the potential of deploying CCU technology. However, some technical and economic barriers should first be addressed in each of the sector facilities since they are not designed to be retrofitted with carbon capture units. iii In general, limited flexibility in Kuwaiti facilities with regard to being retrofitted with CCU technologies, and the impact of this process on their efficiencies, represent the main technical obstacles in the State. In addition to the technical barriers of reusing the existing high-pressure natural gas infrastructure for CO2 transportation and managing the injecting process of CO2 into a deep saline aquifer. From an economic aspect, the economic burden of introducing this technology to various institutions in the country will vary significantly depending on the lifetime and operating conditions of the current facilities. Oxy-fuel combustion appears to be the most economically attractive technology with its cumulative cost equivalent to approximately one third of the cost of post-combustion. The key actions required to fully understand the potential of CCU in the state of Kuwait include developing new environmental regulations, extending the scope of the analysis to include techno-economic analyses, deployment of more pilot plants for CO2-EOR in the north of Kuwait, and carrying out field optimization studies for the saline aquifer reservoirs.
Description: PhD Thesis
Appears in Collections:School of Engineering

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