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Title: Self-diagnosis implantable optrode for optogenetic stimulation
Authors: Zhao, Hubin
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Newcastle University
Abstract: As a cell type-specific neuromodulation method, optogenetic technique holds remarkable potential for the realisation of advanced neuroprostheses. By genetically expressing light-sensitive proteins such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in cell membranes, targeted neurons could be controlled by blue light. This new neuromodulation technique could then be applied into extensive brain networks and be utilised to provide effective therapies for neurological disorders. However, the development of novel optogenetic implants is still a key challenge in the field. The major requirements include small device dimensions, suitable spatial resolution, high safety, and strong controllability. In particular, appropriate implantable electronics are expected to be built into the device, accomplishing a new-generation intelligent optogenetic implant. To date, different microfabrication techniques, such as wave-guided laser/light-emitting diode (LED) structure and μLED-on-optrode structure, have been widely explored to create and miniaturise optogenetic implants. However, although these existing devices meet the requirements to some extent, there is still considerable room for improvement. In this thesis, a Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS)-driven μLED approach is proposed to develop an advanced implantable optrode. This design is based on the μLED-on-optrode structure, where Gallium Nitride (GaN) μLEDs can be directly bonded to provide precise local light delivery and multi-layer stimulation. Moreover, an in-built diagnostic sensing circuitry is designed to monitor optrode integrity and degradation. This self-diagnosis function greatly improves system reliability and safety. Furthermore, in-situ temperature sensors are incorporated to monitor the local thermal effects of light emitters. This ensures both circuitry stability and tissue health. More importantly, external neural recording circuitry is integrated into the implant, which could observe local neural signals in the vicinity of the stimulation sites. Therefore, a CMOS-based multi-sensor optogenetic implant is achieved, and this closed-loop neural interface is capable of performing multichannel optical neural stimulation and electrical neural recording simultaneously. This optrode is expected to represent a promising neural interface for broad neuroprosthesis applications.
Description: PhD Thesis
Appears in Collections:School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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