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dc.contributor.authorKarkar, Ammar Jallawi Mahmood-
dc.descriptionPhD Thesisen_US
dc.description.abstractNetworks-on-chip (NoCs) is a communication paradigm that has emerged aiming to address on-chip communication challenges and to satisfy interconnection demands for chip-multiprocessors (CMPs). Nonetheless, there is continuous demand for even higher computational power, which is leading to a relentless downscaling of CMOS technology to enable the integration of many-cores. However, technology downscaling is in favour of the gate nodes over wires in terms of latency and power consumption. Consequently, this has led to the era of many-core processors where power consumption and performance are governed by inter-core communications rather than core computation. Therefore, NoCs need to evolve from being merely metalbased implementations which threaten to be a performance and power bottleneck for many-core efficiency and scalability. To overcome such intensified inter-core communication challenges, this thesis proposes a novel interconnect technology: the surface-wave interconnect (SWI). This new RF-based on-chip interconnect has notable characteristics compared to cutting-edge on-chip interconnects in terms of CMOS compatibility, high speed signal propagation, low power dissipation, and massive signal fan-out. Nonetheless, the realization of the SWI requires investigations at different levels of abstraction, such as the device integration and RF engineering levels. The aim of this thesis is to address the networking and system level challenges and highlight the potential of this interconnect. This should encourage further research at other levels of abstraction. Two specific system-level challenges crucial in future many-core systems are tackled in this study, which are cross-the-chip global communication and one-to-many communication. This thesis makes four major contributions towards this aim. The first is reducing the NoC average-hop count, which would otherwise increase packet-latency exponentially, by proposing a novel hybrid interconnect architecture. This hybrid architecture can not only utilize both regular metal-wire and SWI, but also exploits merits of both bus and NoC architectures in terms of connectivity compared to other general-purpose on-chip interconnect architectures. The second contribution addresses global communication issues by developing a distance-based weighted-round-robin arbitration (DWA) algorithm. This technique prioritizes global communication to be send via SWI short-cuts, which offer more efficient power dissipation and faster across-the-chip signal propagation. Results obtained using a cycleaccurate simulator demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system architecture in terms of significant power reduction, considervii able average delay reduction and higher throughput compared to a regular NoC. The third contribution is in handling multicast communications, which are normally associated with traffic overload, hotspots and deadlocks and therefore increase, by an order of magnitude the power consumption and latency. This has been achieved by proposing a novel routing and centralized arbitration schemes that exploits the SWI0s remarkable fan-out features. The evaluation demonstrates drastic improvements in the effectiveness of the proposed architecture in terms of power consumption ( 2-10x) and performance ( 22x) but with negligible hardware overheads ( 2%). The fourth contribution is to further explore multicast contention handling in a flexible decentralized manner, where original techniques such as stretch-multicast and ID-tagging flow control have been developed. A comparison of these techniques shows that the decentralized approach is superior to the centralized approach with low traffic loads, while the latter outperforms the former near and after NoC saturation.en_US
dc.publisherNewcastle Universityen_US
dc.titleInterconnects architectures for many-core era using surface-wave communicationen_US
Appears in Collections:School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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