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Title: Effect of variety, fertilisation, rotation, crop protection and growing season on yield and nutritional quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)
Authors: Abolgasem, Tounis Maoloud Mohmed
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Newcastle University
Abstract: Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are the most important food crop in the world after rice and wheat. Potato tubers contain many types of essential nutrients. They contain high concentrations of carbohydrates and also vitamins, minerals and protein. They also contain toxic compounds called glycoalkaloids. Potato is classed as a protective vegetable because of its high vitamin C content. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different fertiliser types (composted cattle manure, mineral NPK fertiliser), pre-crop (beans, barley) crop protection protocols (organic, conventional) and growing season on the nutritional quality of vitamin C, glycoalkaloids and minerals and yield of different varieties of potato (Sante, Sarpo Mira, Nicola, Fontane, Agria and Cara). Field experiments were carried out during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons at Nafferton Farm (Newcastle University). The experiment was a split split split plot-design. The main plot was crop rotation, the sub-plot was crop protection, the sub-sub plot was fertility management and sub-sub-sub plot was variety. The vitamin C content was determined by two different methods of analyses; colorimetric titration and high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mineral content was assessed by the Dumas combustion method at Sabanci University, Turkey. Total glycoalkaloids were determined according to the AOAC method 997. 13. A significant effect of fertilisation was detected for potato yield for both of years. In plots treated with NPK fertilisers, higher yield, compared to compost was obtained for both seasons. In addition conventional crop protection increased yield in both years. Pre-crop significantly affected yield in both years, with higher yields being recorded after beans than barley in 2010 while, a pre-crop of barley resulted in the significantly higher yield than beans in 2011. However, no significant difference between varieties was detected. Also, no significant interactions were detected for tuber yield in 2010. However a significant 2-way interaction between crop protection and pre-crop was observed in 2011, with a pre-crop of beans resulting in the highest yields under conventional crop protection, while a pre-crop of barley resulted in the significantly higher yield under organic crop protection systems. Results of the second growing season (2011) were based on the NUE potato experiment and showed that there was significant difference (P < 0.05) in yield between varieties, fertilisation iii and crop protection. A significant interaction between fertilisation and variety was detected for the yield. There was a significant effect of variety on tuber vitamin C content (P < 0.001), in 2010 and 2011. The concentrations were higher in Sante than Sarpo Mira. There were no significant influences of other treatments (fertility, rotation, crop protection). However, a 2-way interaction between fertilisation and variety was detected in 2011. In 2011 there was a significant effect of varieties on vitamin C content, but no significant effect of fertility and crop protection treatments. However, a significant interactions between fertility, variety and crop protection treatments was detected but only for the titration analysis for vitamin C content. There were no significant effects (P > 0.05) of fertilisation, pre-crop and crop protection on glycoalkaloid concentrations. However, a significant 3-way interaction between fertilisation, variety and rotation was detected for alpha solanine in 2011. A significant 3-way interaction between crop protection, fertilisation and variety was detected for alpha chaconine in 2010. In 2010 the mineral content (N, P, K, Na and Ca) of potatoes was significantly affected by fertilisation treatments. N, P and Ca contents were significantly increased by NPK application while the K and Na contents were significantly increased by compost application. In 2011 Ca contents were affected by fertilisation treatments only. Effects of variety, rotation and crop protection and interactions between factors were also detected for macro mineral contents. However, in 2011 no effect of pre-crop on tuber macronutrient concentration was detected. There was a significant difference in micronutrient concentration between variety, fertilisation and crop protection. No significant effect of rotations was detected for micronutrient concentrations in both of seasons. In conclusion, in both years, 2010 and 2011, variety significantly affected vitamin C content of potato tubers, but there were no significant effects of fertility, pre-crop and crop protection treatments irrespective of the analytical method (titration and HPLC) analysis. Sante tubers contained about 20% more vitamin C than Sarpo Mira. Therefore, it appears that variety choice is a reliable means of manipulating vitamin C as a component of tuber quality compared with other agronomic treatments. In addition, mineral content was also affected by treatments (fertility, variety, rotation and crop protection) and was highly variable. iv For the two years, similar results were obtained in alpha solanine and alpha chaconine content. Significant interactions between rotation, fertilisation and variety were only detected on alpha solanine content during 2011. Also, significant interactions between variety, fertility and crop protection were observed on alpha chaconine content during 2010. The 2010 and 2011 growing seasons appeared to have a significant effect on alpha solanine, macro minerals and micro minerals but did not appear to affect yield, vitamin C and alpha chaconine contents.
Description: Phd Thesis
Appears in Collections:School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development

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