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Title: Adjuncts to pre-hospital resuscitation strategies for haemorrhagic shock and blast injury : supplemental oxygen and recombinant activated factor VII
Authors: Granville-Chapman, Jeremy
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: Newcastle University
Abstract: Explosion is responsible for almost 80% of Coalition injuries in today’s conflicts. Haemorrhage is the leading cause of death and blast lung injury is evident in 11% of Coalition casualties surviving to reach the (UK) Field Hospital. Military prehospital evacuation times can be prolonged and the combined insults of haemorrhage and blast injury present a ‘double hit’ to oxygen delivery. Resuscitation strategies must be capable of preserving life from such trauma for several hours. Alongside fluid therapy, adjuncts to resuscitation might improve battlefield survival. This randomized controlled animal trial assessed two adjuncts: supplemental inspired oxygen and recombinant activated Factor VII (rFVIIa). Neither adjunct is currently available in the far-forward military echelon, but with modern technology, both are potentially deployable. 18 terminally anaesthetized swine were exposed to blast, controlled haemorrhage and grade IV liver laceration (uncontrolled haemorrhage). Animals were allocated randomly into three treatment groups. All animals were resuscitated with normal saline to a hypotensive systolic target (80mmHg), which continued until the 8hr end point. Thirty minutes after the onset of resuscitation each group received one of the following: single (180mcg/kg) dose of rFVIIa; supplemental oxygen (min FiO2 0.3 to maintain SaO2>95%) or the control group (breathed air throughout and received saline placebo 0.18ml/kg). 5/6 control animals died within 4 hours. Supplemental oxygen improved survival (4/6 survival to 8h endpoint, P=0.014). Single dose rFVIIa did not prolong survival compared to control (2/6 survived, p=0.65). Oxygen arrested physiological decline while control and rFVIIa animals continued to decline until death. Supplemental oxygen is a useful adjunct to fluid resuscitation in the context of haemorrhage and blast injury. Delivery of oxygen support capability to forward echelon units is recommended. By contrast, a single intravenous (pre-hospital) dose of rFVIIa was not an effective treatment for blast lung based on our model of complex battlefield injury.
Description: M.D. Thesis
Appears in Collections:School of Biomedical Sciences

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