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|Title: ||Interactions between demand side response, demand recovery, peak pricing and electricity distribution network capacity margins|
|Authors: ||Mullen, Christopher|
|Issue Date: ||2018 |
|Publisher: ||Newcastle University|
|Abstract: ||The operation of the electricity system is subject to: charges comprised of energy,
capacity, use of system, peak demand and balancing components; payments for services
that influence the timing and magnitude of demand; and regulatory and physical network
constraints. This work explores the interactions of these characteristics in the GB system.
The revenue flows associated with energy demand, balancing and use of system charges
are mapped for generators, transmission and distribution network operators (TNO and
DNOs), system operator (SO), electricity retailers and electricity users.
Triads are part of the transmission network use of service charges and are a form of peak
demand pricing. The cost-benefit of Triad avoidance using emergency standby generation
is evaluated. Demand Side Response (DSR) provision by commercial electricity users on
the network is modelled and simulated. The research determines the impacts of DSR
timing, location and penetration level, demand recovery and incidence of Triad periods.
A suite of software models was developed including: network demand agents which can
be populated with demand profiles and include a model of energy recovery; an interface
to Matpower  to allow for time-domain based power flow calculations and a model of
Short Term Operating Reserve (STOR) which synthesizes calls at representative dates
and times. The network demand agents are linked to bus-bars on a network model. The
software suite is used to investigate the impacts of STOR provision by demand reduction
with and without energy recovery on Triad demand using a Monte Carlo simulation. The
total cost benefit of participation in STOR is evaluated. It is also used to conduct timeaware
power-flow analysis on a distribution network model with STOR provision by
demand reduction. The impact on network capacity headroom is quantified.
The cost effectiveness of using standby generation for Triad avoidance was found to
depend on the cost of the grid compliant connection. For a payback time of 4 years or
less, with the size of generator considered, the grid compliant connection would have to
cost less than £5,600.
The probability of decreased Triad demand due STOR provision by demand reduction
with energy recovery is up to 4 % for the parameters considered. This compares to a
probability of up to 1.6 % that the Triad demand would be increased. The most likely
outcome is that Triad demand remains unaffected. The total cost benefit of STOR
provision by demand reduction for the 1st percentile may be negative compared to not
The impact of DSR provision by demand reduction with energy recovery on the
distribution network capacity overhead varies significantly with time of day and with the
distribution of DSR over the network. For evenly distributed DSR, demand recovery
peaks greater than 40 kW cause a reduction in capacity overhead. However, for a case
where the DSR is not evenly distributed the capacity overhead does not decrease for
recovery peaks less than 800 kW.|
|Description: ||PhD Thesis|
|Appears in Collections:||School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering|
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